A pediatric otolaryngologist, or ear, nose and throat (ENT) doctor, is a physician who completed an additional five-year otolaryngology residency program and one to two years of additional pediatric training. This training gives pediatric otolaryngologists the skills needed to evaluate and care for children of all ages with conditions involving the ear, nose or throat. A board certified pediatric otolaryngologist has successfully passed an additional evaluation by the American Board of Otolaryngology and has special competences in pediatric otolaryngology. Advanced practice providers and audiologists often work in collaboration with pediatric otolaryngologists. Other specialists, including pulmonologists, allergists, developmental pediatricians, infectious disease specialists, gastroenterologists, speech therapists and/or lactation consultants, may either refer a child to a practice, or serve as a consultant regarding his or her unique situation.