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  • Abdominal Silo Placement - Abdominal silo placement is a temporary covering to protect any exposed bowel.
  • Acetaminophen - A pain reliever, but does not help with inflammation.
  • Acute Pain - Acute pain is temporary and typically results from an injury, surgery or infection. Anesthesiologists provide acute pain management services to patients during and immediately after surgery. Acute pain management is normally conducted in the hospital, but modified techniques can be offered at home with the help of a home care team. Pain management techniques include prescription medicines, nerve blocks, continuous epidurals, spinal blocks, nerve stimulators and narcotic infusions.
  • ADHD Screening - ADHD screening is a cardiac evaluation for children who have a medical history of cardiac disease and are either currently undergoing, or are being considered for stimulant therapy. The evaluation may include an electrocardiogram (EKG/ECG) to determine if the child’s heart is beating as it should and serve as a baseline for future comparison.
  • Adults with Congenital Heart Disease - Congenital heart disease (CHD) is a term used to describe a group of problems present at birth that affect the structure of the heart and/or the large vessels near the heart. There are many types of CHD. Some types may be detected before birth and, in some cases, may be treated before birth. Other types are not found until the baby is born, during childhood or in adulthood.
  • Advanced Practice Provider - Advanced practice providers are registered nurses with a master’s degree that have received advanced training in a variety of fields, including developmental pediatrics, pediatric cardiology and pediatric intensive care.
  • Air Leak Syndrome - Air leak syndrome is a term used to describe problems that happen when air collects within a baby’s chest, but outside the normal air cells of the lungs. The air then creates pressure on the lungs and makes breathing very difficult.
  • Ambulatory Care Anesthesia - Ambulatory surgery is a specialized area of care that allows patients to have surgery and then return home the same day. These centers are also called outpatient surgery centers. All types of anesthesia, including general, regional, sedation and local, can be used in an ambulatory care setting. The anesthesiologist monitors the patients closely to ensure their pain is controlled and that they are able to return home the same day.
  • Amniocentesis - Amniocentesis is a diagnostic test to screen for chromosome abnormalities and inherited disorders. A sample of amniotic fluid is collected through an ultrasound guided needle inserted into the amniotic sac. The amniotic fluid is sent to a laboratory for analysis.
  • Amniocentesis - Amniocentesis is a diagnostic test to screen for chromosome abnormalities and inherited disorders. A sample of amniotic fluid is collected through an ultrasound guided needle inserted into the amniotic sac. The amniotic fluid is sent to a laboratory for analysis.
  • Amnioreduction - Amnioreduction is a procedure that removes excess fluid resulting from conditions such as twin-to-twin transfusion syndrome, where there is too much fluid around a baby. A small needle is passed through the mother’s uterus and the extra amniotic fluid is removed.
  • Anal Fistulotomy - Anal fistulotomy is a surgery used to treat a fistula-in-ano.
  • Anesthesia Awareness - Anesthesia awareness is a rare event in which a patient undergoing general anesthesia may regain consciousness and be able to recall some events during surgery. General anesthesia is the only type of anesthesia where anesthesia awareness may occur. Other forms of anesthesia such as sedation, regional and local are not associated with anesthesia awareness.
  • Anesthesiologist - An anesthesiologist is a physician who has earned an undergraduate degree and completed four years each of medical school and residency training in the medical specialty of anesthesiology. Many anesthesiologists have additional experience or fellowship training in anesthesiology specialties, including obstetric anesthesia, pediatric anesthesia, cardiac anesthesia, pain medicine, critical care management and neuroanesthesia.
  • Anesthetist - An anesthetist is an advanced practice provider who assists an anesthesiologist in the delivery of quality anesthesia care. Anesthetists have a nursing, pre-medicine or science based undergraduate background and completed an accredited master’s program focused on the delivery and maintenance of anesthesia care and patient monitoring techniques.
  • Ankle Block - The ankle block is common for surgery of the foot and is administered around the ankle.
  • Anorectal Pull-Through - Anorectal pull-through is a procedure where a baby’s abnormal rectum and colon are removed and normal colon is reconnected to the anus, typically for babies with Hirschsprung’s disease.
  • Antenatal (Prenatal) Testing (Screening) - Antenatal testing, or prenatal diagnostic screening, refers to a variety of testing options available to determine if a fetus has certain abnormalities. Many of the tests are conducted by an obstetrician (OB) as routine prenatal screening, including ultrasound, nuchal translucency screening and testing of a pregnant woman’s blood to help estimate the risk of certain abnormalities. When a test indicates a higher risk, additional tests are available to further analyze the fetus. These additional tests, such as amniocentesis and chronic villus sampling, are often more invasive and have additional risks to the fetus and should be conducted by a maternal-fetal medicine (MFM) specialist.
  • Anti-Convulsants - Effective in treating nerve pain.
  • Apnea of Prematurity - Apnea is a problem in which a baby temporarily stops breathing while sleeping or resting. Many newborns have short pauses in their breathing (less than 20 seconds). But a baby is said to have apnea if he or she stops breathing for at least 20 seconds, or has a slowed heart rate (bradycardia), or has a bluish color to the skin with a shorter pause in breathing. Periods of apnea may be accompanied by bradycardia and these events are called "spells" or "alarms."
  • Arrhythmia - Arrhythmia describes problems with the rate or rhythm of the heartbeat that occurs when electrical signals to the heart don’t work properly.
  • Arthritis - Arthritis is a condition caused by inflammation in the joints. It is often used to refer to a group of many diseases that can cause pain, stiffness, and swelling in the joints. There are over 100 types of arthritis. Some of the most common types of arthritis include:
    • Osteoarthritis
    • Rheumatoid arthritis
    • Gouty arthritis
  • Assisted Reproductive Technology (ART) Support - A maternal-fetal medicine (MFM) specialist is available to coordinate in the management of women who became pregnant through assisted reproductive technology, including In vitro fertilization (IVF) and intrauterine insemination (IUI). An MFM specialist is able to provide an extra level of care through additional monitoring and screening.
  • Autism - Autism is a developmental disorder affecting the nervous system. Symptoms vary in range and severity and may include communication challenges, difficulty interacting in social settings, obsessive interests and repetitive behaviors.
  • Axillary Block - The axillary block is used for surgery involving areas of the upper body such as the hand, elbow or forearm.
  • Babies Born with Low Blood Sugar (Hypoglycemia) - The amount of sugar in our blood, called blood sugar or blood glucose, is the fuel that keeps all of our body systems working. If this level dips too low, it is called hypoglycemia. Low blood sugar can happen in any newborn, but some babies have a higher risk for it. Because a baby’s body requires so much energy (sugar) after birth, low blood sugar usually occurs within the first few hours after birth. In general, the risk for low blood sugar in a healthy, full-term newborn declines shortly after birth. Yet, if blood sugar stays too low for too long without treatment, it can affect the brain. The effects can range from mild to severe, and may result in learning problems, vision problems, and impaired development of motor skills and speech.
  • Back Pain - Individuals experiencing back pain that continues or worsens over the course of two weeks will benefit from an evaluation by a pain specialist. Early intervention is key to heading off long term pain conditions. If a patient has problems with bowel or bladder control, numbness in the groin or rectal area, or leg weakness they should seek help immediately. These symptoms are a sign of nerve damage and can be irreversible if not treated appropriately.
  • Bier Block - The bier block is primarily used in procedures lasting less than forty minutes that involve the arm, wrist or forearm.
  • Biliary Dyskinesia - Biliary dyskinesia occurs when the gallbladder has abnormal contractions that cause pain in the right upper part of the abdomen. The pain is usually worse after eating, especially after eating greasy foods.
  • Blood Transfusion in Newborn - A blood transfusion is a process in which blood is given to a baby. This is a common need in premature babies and full-term babies born with health problems. A blood transfusion is a way to provide extra red blood cells (RBCs) to the baby. Red blood cells carry oxygen throughout the body and it is vital that the baby has a certain amount.
  • Botox - Botox provides migraine relief by reducing the contractions of the muscles in and around the injection site. In effect, it immobilizes the muscle it has been injected into. With no real negative side effects, these injections are a great option for those who regularly suffer with migraines. Pain relief can be significant – up to 3 and-a-half months long – in many patients.
  • Bowel resection - Bowel resection is a procedure to remove abnormal intestines. In most cases, the healthy intestines are reconnected. However, if it is not safe to reconnect the intestines, a surgeon may bring the intestine through an opening in the abdomen, called an ostomy. With an ostomy, the baby’s poop will go into a bag until he or she is healthy enough to have the ostomy removed.
  • Brain Injury - Brain injury may result from damage of the fragile blood vessels and/or the white matter in premature babies. Often, this is caused by a complex mix of events that may occur while the fetus is in the womb, during the delivery or after birth.
  • Cancer Pain - Cancer is a devastating disease, and the pain that accompanies it can be debilitating. Pain specialists can work closely with a cancer patient’s primary care physician, oncologist, surgeon and other members of the health care team to treat cancer pain aggressively.
  • Cardiac Catheterization - Cardiac catheterization is a test that uses a thin, flexible tube, called a catheter, to check the heart. The catheter is inserted into a blood vessel in the arm, groin or neck and threaded to the heart, enabling a cardiologist to conduct diagnostic testing and treatments.
  • Cardiac Sonographers - A cardiac sonographer uses ultrasound equipment to take advanced pictures of the heart and make measurements. This can help the care team diagnose and treat heart problems.
  • Cardiomyopathy - Cardiomyopathy is a disease of the heart, causing its muscles to become enlarged, thick or ridged. The heart’s lessened ability to pump blood effectively can cause fluid buildup in other parts of the body. As the disease worsens, the heart becomes weaker, causing irregular heartbeats, or arrhythmias, and heart failure.
  • Cardiovascular Anesthesia - Cardiovascular anesthesia, or cardiac anesthesia, is a unique and challenging subspecialty involving an array of complex procedures performed on patients. Cardiovascular anesthesiologists have fellowship training in anesthesia for cardiac (heart), thoracic (lungs), and vascular (blood vessels) surgeries. Cardiac patients frequently have additional medical problems such as hypertension, diabetes or lung disease, which can complicate medical management. The additional training that cardiovascular anesthesiologists receive along with state-of-the-art cardiac monitoring helps assure a safe outcome during surgery.
  • Catheters - Catheters are fine plastic tubes that are used to help anesthesiologists administer anesthesia and pain medications as a continuous infusion. These catheters are inserted near bundles of nerves to provide medications that can be used to treat post-operative pain. Local anesthetics are the usual medications that are used for catheter-treated post-operative pain. Ropivicaine is the most common local anesthetic administered through catheters. Catheters are usually placed in the pre-operative area before the start of surgery.
  • Certified Diabetes Educator (CDE) - A CDE is a certified health professional, usually a nutritionist or dietitian, with advanced training in the prevention and management of diabetes. CDEs provide guidance and education to help patients self-manage diabetes and improve their health.
  • Certified Nurse Midwife - A midwife is registered nurse with a master’s degree who has received additional training in women’s reproductive health and childbirth. A certified nurse midwife has passed additional testing and is certified by the American Midwifery Certification Board. Midwives are uniquely positioned to provide clinical expertise, emotional support and health education for the patient and her family. Certified nurse midwives provide full scope midwifery care for both high-risk and routine pregnancies, and share the philosophies held by the American College of Nurse Midwives (ACNM), including individualized patient-centered care.
  • Cholecystectomy - Cholecystectomy is a surgical procedure where the gallbladder is removed.
  • Choledochal Cyst - Choledochal cysts are abnormal development of the biliary system that drains the liver into the small intestine. These cysts can lead to recurrent infections and jaundice (yellowing of the skin and eyes).
  • Chorionic Villus Sampling - Chronic villus sampling, or CVS, is a diagnostic test to screen for chromosome abnormalities and inherited disorders by analyzing the chorionic villi cells from the placenta. The placenta cells are collected either transcervically, using an ultrasound guided catheter inserted through the cervix to gently suction the cells, or transabdominally, through a long thin needle inserted into the placenta through the abdomen.
  • Chronic Lung Disease - Chronic lung disease (CLD), also known as bronchopulmonary dysplasia (BPD), occurs if growth in parts of a baby’s lungs are disrupted, altering the lung structure and function. CLD can lead to continued lung problems for some children. Because severe CLD can cause decreased oxygen to parts of the baby’s body, it also can lead to problems with the baby’s heart, and with hearing, motor skills, speech and learning.
  • Chronic Pain - Chronic pain is reoccurring or continuous pain that persists for longer than two weeks. It is usually caused by a disease or the body’s abnormal reaction to injury or stimulus, tends to be less intense than acute pain, but can be just as debilitating. Anesthesiologists specializing in pain management have the expertise and training to be able to diagnose and treat complex pain cases. Chronic pain management techniques vary greatly from patient to patient. Some techniques used include prescription medicines, nerve blocks, continuous epidurals, spinal blocks, nerve stimulators and narcotic infusions.
  • Computed Tomography (CT) - Computed tomography, also called a CAT scan, uses x-ray and computer equipment to produce cross-sectional images of body tissues and organs. CT imaging is useful because it can show several types of tissue, such as lung, bone, soft tissue and blood vessels. Specialized types of CT are used to obtain high resolution imaging of arteries, called CTA or CT-angiography.
  • Congenital Diaphragmatic Hernia - Congenital diaphragmatic hernia is an opening in the muscle that separates the chest cavity from the abdominal cavity. The hole allows organs from the abdomen to push into the chest and squeeze the heart and lungs, making it difficult for a baby to breathe when born.
  • Congenital Diaphragmatic Hernia Repair - Congenital diaphragmatic hernia repair is a procedure that closes a hole in the diaphragm muscle between the chest and abdominal cavity. A small hole is usually closed with sutures alone, while larger holes may require a patch with mesh or muscle from the abdominal wall.
  • Congenital Heart Disease -

    Congenital heart disease (CHD) is a term used to describe a group of problems present at birth that affect the structure of the heart and/or the large vessels near the heart. There are many types of CHD. Some types may be detected before birth and, in some cases, may be treated before birth. Other types are not found until the baby is born, during childhood or in adulthood.

  • Congenital Malformations - Congenital malformations, also called birth defects, are problems that happen while a baby is still in the womb. There are many types of congenital malformations that may affect organs (such as the heart, lungs or brain) or body parts (such as eyes, hands, fingers or feet).
  • Congenital Pulmonary Airway Malformation (CPAM) - Congenital pulmonary airway malformations are abnormal growths of lung tissue that can cause recurrent infections or become a tumor. There are many different types of CPAMs, including:
    • Congenital cystic adenomatoid malformation (CCAM)
    • Bronchopulmonary sequestrations (BPS)
    • Bronchial atresia
    • Congenital lobar emphysema
    • Bronchogenic cyst
  • Continuous Epidural Analgesia or Patient Controlled Epidural Analgesia (PCEA) - Epidural analgesia delivers anesthetic medication to nerves within the epidural space in the vertebra. The physician places a small tube, or catheter, so medication can be administered throughout surgery and beyond for comfort. Frequently the patient can be given control over the dosing mechanism. This technique is called patient-controlled epidural analgesia, or PCEA. This type of pain control is particularly well suited for chest, abdominal or pelvic surgeries, and childbirth.
  • Contrast Study - Contrast study is a diagnostic procedure that uses a contrast solution, either ingested or injected into the body, to create enhanced images of certain organs so they can be seen more clearly with x-ray imaging.
  • Controlling Nausea and Vomiting After Surgery -

    While common side effects of anesthesia, nausea and vomiting after anesthesia not only makes the patient uncomfortable, but can cause significant stress on incisions and the abdominal cavity. By controlling nausea and vomiting, patients feel better and may experience decreased recovery time. Some of the techniques anesthesiologists use to control nausea and vomiting include:

    • Giving medications to prevent nausea before surgery starts in “at risk” patients
    • Maintaining nausea preventing medications throughout surgery
    • Ensuring that there are anti-nausea medications available after surgery
  • Controlling Pain After Surgery - Many techniques are available that can help patients achieve high levels of comfort and safety following surgery, including interventional methods as well as pain medications. Pain control after surgery contributes to the healing process. If pain is not adequately controlled following surgery, patients may not be able to perform the functions necessary to heal satisfactorily. Functions like taking deep breaths, getting out of bed and walking can be difficult after surgery and sometimes require interventional pain management methods. If pain is allowed to persist the resulting inactivity can lead to severe problems such as pneumonia or an embolism.
  • Corticosteroids - Work well for inflammatory conditions and can be taken orally or injected into the soft tissue, joints or epidural space.
  • Critical Care Anesthesia - Critical care is a medical term referencing the treatment of patients with life threatening illnesses. Also known as intensive care (ICU), patients in critical care units require constant monitoring and specialized care. Anesthesiologists that specialize in critical care medicine are be able to manage anesthesia associated with acute respiratory, cardiovascular, metabolic, cerebral, and renal problems in patients ranging from infants to older adults. They must also manage multiple organ failures, life threatening diseases and disorders that fall into many specialties.
  • CRPS/RSD - Complex Regional Pain Syndrome (CRPS), also referred to as Reflex Sympathetic Dystrophy Syndrome (RSD), is a chronic progressive disease characterized by severe pain, swelling and changes in the skin. Experts believe that CRPS occurs as a result of dysfunction in the central or peripheral nervous system.
  • Developmental Delay - Developmental delay occurs when a child is not reaching all of his or her developmental milestones. Developmental delay can relate to gross or fine motor, language, social or thinking skills.
  • Developmental Pediatrician - A developmental pediatrician is a pediatrician who has completed additional subspecialty training in the areas of pediatric development and behavior. This training gives a developmental pediatrician the skills needed to evaluate and care for children of all ages at risk of, or experiencing, developmental or behavioral problems.
  • DEXA Scan - Dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry, or DEXA, is a procedure for measuring bone mineral density. Doctors commonly use DEXA bone densitometry to measure bone loss and accurately detect osteoporosis.
  • Diabetes -

    Diabetic neuropathy is a nerve disorder caused by diabetes. Over time, high blood sugar levels from diabetes can damage nerves throughout the body.

    • There are several types of diabetic neuropathy. Peripheral neuropathy reduces the ability to sense pain, touch, temperature and vibration in certain parts of the body. It may also affect movement and muscle strength.
    • Autonomic neuropathy may cause problems with the nerves that control the involuntary functions of the body, such as heartbeat, blood pressure, sweating, digestion, urination and some aspects of sexual function.
    • Focal neuropathy affects a single nerve, most often in the wrist, thigh or foot. It may also affect the nerves of the back, chest and those that control the eye muscles. It often develops suddenly and is the rarest form.
  • Diabetes Management in Pregnancy - Women diagnosed with diabetes before or during pregnancy have difficulties producing the appropriate amount of insulin to process glucose, or sugar, in their bodies. Improper management of diabetes during pregnancy can lead to serious health problems for both the mother and baby. A maternal-fetal medicine (MFM) specialist is specially trained to treat women with diabetes during pregnancy. Through frequent prenatal visits an MFM specialist can monitor and provide recommendations to help manage blood glucose levels through a combination of healthy eating, exercise and medications.
  • Diagnostic Radiology Procedures - Diagnostic radiology exams are used by radiologists to examine a patient's internal organs and structures to determine the existence of a medical condition. The type of imaging procedure or technology used depends upon a patient's symptoms and part of the body being examined and support the subspecialty services of interventional radiology, musculoskeletal imaging, neuroradiology, oncology imaging and women's imaging.
  • Duodenal Atresia - Duodenal atresia is an abnormal development of the first part of the small intestine, known as the duodenum, causing a complete blockage of the intestine and the baby being unable to eat.
  • Duodenuduodenostomy - Duodenuduodenostomy is a procedure where the first part of the small intestine, known as the duodenum, is sewn together to bypass a blockage caused by duodenal atresia or annular pancreas.
  • Echocardiography - Echocardiography is a non-invasive test that uses ultrasound waves to take moving pictures of the heart. This allows the cardiologist to examine structures of the heart and identify any abnormalities.
  • Electrocardiogram - An electrocardiogram (EKG/ECG) is a non-invasive test that uses electrodes placed on the chest and limbs to measure heart activity.
  • Electrophysiology - Electrophysiology is a category of tests cardiologists use to evaluate the electrical activity of the heart to understand where an arrhythmia is coming from.
  • Enterocolitis - Enterocolitis is an inflammation of the intestines, most commonly the colon, which can occur in newborn babies or in children with Hirschsprung’s disease.
  • Epidural Catheters - An epidural is the injection of anesthesia medication into the epidural space of the lower back and most often involves the placement of a continuous catheter. This procedure can also include a local anesthetic block, a narcotic, and/or an epidural steroid injection. There are several types of epidurals that are used to stop the transmission of pain along the nerve pathways.
    • Continuous Epidural Analgesia or Patient Controlled Epidural Analgesia (PCEA)
    • Walking Epidural
  • Epidural or Epidural Steroid Injection -

    An epidural is the injection of anesthesia medication into the epidural space of the lower back and most often involves the placement of a continuous catheter. This procedure can also include a local anesthetic block, a narcotic, and/or an epidural steroid injection. There are several types of epidurals that are used to stop the transmission of pain along the nerve pathways:

    • Continuous Epidural Analgesia or Patient Controlled Epidural Analgesia (PCEA)

    • Walking Epidural

  • Epidural Steroid Injections - An epidural steroid injection, often referred to as a nerve block, is a minimally invasive procedure to help treat pain caused by inflamed spinal nerves. The medication used in an epidural steroid injection usually includes both a local anesthetic and a steroid. The medicine is delivered directly into the epidural space of the spine. This can reduce inflammation causing a reduction or elimination of the pain caused by the inflamed nerve root.
  • Esophageal Atresia - Esophageal atresia is an abnormality in the development of a baby’s esophagus causing the esophagus to be blocked and the baby being unable to eat. In most cases there is also a connection between a baby’s windpipe and his or her stomach known as a tracheoesophageal fistula or TEF.
  • Esophagoesophagostomy - Esophagoesophagostomy is a procedure that reconnects the esophagus in babies with esophageal atresia, so food can pass from the mouth into the stomach
  • Event Monitoring - Event monitoring provides evaluation of arrhythmia abnormalities over a 30-day period of time. This testing allows for assessment of heart rhythm during symptomatic periods.
  • Ex utero Intra-partum Therapy (EXIT Procedure) - EXIT Procedure is a specialized mode of delivery where a baby stays connected to its mother through the placenta while a surgical procedure is performed. As soon as the baby’s surgery is complete, he or she is disconnected from the placenta, completing the delivery. This procedure is most commonly used when a baby has a large tumor on his or her neck that will make it difficult to breathe once born.
  • Excision of Choledochal Cyst - Excision of choledochal cyst is a procedure where abnormal bile ducts that drain the liver into the intestine are removed. The liver is then reconnected to the small intestine.
  • Excisional Biopsy - Excisional biopsy is the process of cutting out and removing the entire portion of abnormal tissue for diagnosis and cure.
  • Exercise Testing - An exercise test helps the cardiologist find out how well a child's heart, lungs and muscles work during exercise. The test can also show if there is a lack of blood flow to the heart as the child does work, and helps the cardiologist know the kind and level of activity that's right for the child.
  • Expectant Management - Expectant management is the monitoring of certain conditions that will resolve on their own with time.
  • Extremity Pain -

    Patients suffering from extremity pain might notice the effects of stress on joints associated with their arms, legs, wrists, ankles, shoulders or neck.

    • There are two types of extremity pain. Lower extremity pain affects the nerves which control the lower extremities beginning in the low back and lower spine. Lower extremity pain may be positional, getting better or worse depending on the body position, or episodic, following an activity or without apparent cause, and is triggered as the body adapts to mechanical stress, weak posture and inefficient motion. Lower extremity pain includes leg pain, ankle pain and foot pain.
    • Upper extremity pain is often caused by an injury from daily overuse. In general, the more frequent or the more strain an activity requires, the greater the opportunity for injury and pain. Upper extremity pain includes arm pain, wrist pain, shoulder pain and hand pain. Overuse injuries can affect nearly any joint in the upper extremities, but most often affect the shoulders and wrists. Pain may be constant or may appear only during certain activities.
  • Failed Back Surgery -

    Failed back surgery, also known as failed back syndrome or post laminectomy syndrome, is a generalized term to describe the condition of patients whose back or spine surgery was not successful and are suffering from chronic back or leg pain. There are many reasons why a surgery may result in failed back surgery (post laminectomy syndrome); however, the primary reason is that the injury (or lesion) that was operated on was not the source of the pain. Additional possibilities include:

    • Residual or recurrent disc herniation
    • Post-operative pressure on a spinal nerve
    • Altered joint mobility
    • Scar tissue
    • Depression
    • Anxiety
  • Femoral Block - The femoral block is used for surgery involving the knee, including knee replacement and ACL reconstruction.
  • Fetal Echo - Fetal echo is a test that uses ultrasound waves to create moving images of the fetal heart structures, the flow of blood through the heart and the heart rhythm.
  • Fetal Echocardiogram - Fetal echocardiogram is a non-invasive exam using ultrasound technology to generate pictures of a baby’s heart. A maternal-fetal medicine (MFM) specialist or pediatric cardiologist will review the images to identify any congenital fetal heart anomalies.
  • Fetal Neck Mass - Fetal neck mass refers to a tumor on a baby’s neck that can block the windpipe. Babies with this condition may require a very special type of delivery known as an EXIT procedure.
  • Fetal Shunt Placement - Shunts are devices that drain fluid. When an unborn baby has fluid collecting in his or her chest, abdomen or bladder, a fetal shunt can be placed to help drain that fluid.
  • Fetoscopic Laser Photocoagulation - Fetoscopic laser photocoagulation is a procedure used to treat twin-to-twin transfusion syndrome. A tiny camera is placed into the uterus to help guide a laser that is used to stop blood flow between the two twins.
  • Fetoscopy - Fetoscopy is a type of surgery where a small camera is inserted into the uterus so that surgery can be performed on the developing baby. This procedure is most commonly used to treat twin-to-twin transfusion syndrome.
  • Fibromyalgia - Fibromyalgia describes a muscle disorder characterized by widespread aching that lasts for more than three months. Tender points are found on both sides of the body, and the pain is usually continuous. There may be day-to-day fluctuations in intensity that shift from one area of the body to another.
  • Fistula-in-ano - Fistula-in-ano is a tunnel that forms between the rectum and the skin of the buttocks, usually after having a perianal abscess. This condition is common in infants and usually causes recurrent infections until the fistula is treated
  • Fluoroscopy - Fluoroscopy uses a contrast agent to capture an image of an internal body organ while it is functioning. This contrast agent allows the image to be viewed clearly on a monitor or screen.
  • Gastroschisis - Gastroschisis is a birth defect where a baby is born with his or her intestines outside of his or her abdomen, requiring surgery shortly after birth.
  • General Anesthesia - When general anesthesia is used, the entire body, including the brain, is put into a state of deep sleep. While in this state the patient is unconscious and has no awareness and no sensation of discomfort. During general anesthesia the patient is carefully monitored, controlled and treated by his or her anesthesiologist, who uses sophisticated equipment to track all major bodily functions.
  • Genetic Counseling - Genetic counseling is support provided by a genetic professional to the patient and the doctor by identifying genetic risk, discussing family history, explaining available testing options and implications of test results, as well as providing patient education. Genetic counselors act as patient advocates translating medical and scientific knowledge into practical information. In addition, they are available to provide support and resources to anyone who may be at risk for a variety of inherited conditions or birth defects, such as cystic fibrosis or disorders common to particular race or ethnic groups. A genetic counselor provides this information in a non-directive, unbiased manner and allows the patient to make her own decisions regarding testing options.
  • Genetic Counselor - A genetic counselor has specialized training in genetics and medical counseling, providing pregnant women with additional support by identifying genetic risk, discussing family history, explaining available testing options and implications of test results, as well as providing patient education – all in easy to understand terms.
  • Gouty arthritis - Is a painful condition that occurs when there are elevated levels of uric acid in the bloodstream, which the body is unable to eliminate. Crystals of uric acid are deposited on the cartilage of joints, tendons, and surrounding tissues causing swelling and severe pain. Gouty arthritis most often occurs in the big toe, knee and wrist joint.
  • Growth Delay - Babies born prematurely and children with developmental delays have an increased risk of delayed growth, where their measurements show a slower than normal rate of growth.
  • Gynecological Surgery - OB/GYN specialists are specially trained to diagnose and manage gynecological problems requiring surgical treatment. Common surgical procedures include:
    • In-office Colposcopy and LEEP
    • In-office endometrial biopsies
    • Hysterectomies, including open, laparoscopic and robotic
    • Removing noncancerous growths in the uterus
    • Uterine ablations such as laparoscopy and hysteroscopy to control excessive menstrual bleeding
    • Diagnostic procedures
  • Gynecology (adult, adolescent, pediatric) - OB/GYN health care providers treat women throughout all phases of their life cycle, including teenagers having her first gynecological visit and mature woman experiencing menopause challenges. OB/GYN health care providers routinely handle gynecology issues including:
    • Abnormal pap smears
    • Endometriosis
    • Fibroids
    • Painful menstrual cycles
    • Perimenopause
    • Menopause
  • Headaches -

    Headaches are usually classified into three broad categories:

    • A muscle contraction, or tension headache, usually affects both sides of the head. It often involves the temple and eye region and possibly the neck. This type of headache evolves over a period of hours, can last days, and tends to remain constant. Sleep disturbance is common with a tension headache.
    • Migraine headaches are usually one-sided and give off a throbbing or pounding pain. The pain generally settles behind one eye and may occur frequently or sporadically.
    • Cluster headaches are the least common type of headache, but are also the most severe. The pain is intense and is described as a burning or piercing quality that is throbbing or constant. The pain from these headaches is so severe that often the sufferer cannot sit still. The pain is located behind one eye, or in the eye region, and typically does not change sides. Attacks normally occur 1-3 times per day over the course of weeks or months. This time period is called a cluster.
  • Heart Disease - Pregnancy places extra stress on a woman’s heart and circulatory system, causing the heart to work harder. The labor and delivery experience also adds to the heart’s workload.
  • Heart Murmur - Heart murmurs are sounds heard when listening to the heart. They may be innocent (normal) or organic (caused by valve abnormalities or holes in the heart, for example). A physical examination by a pediatric cardiologist, in addition to an electrocardiogram, and in some cases an echocardiogram, will distinguish between innocent and organic murmurs.
  • HIDA Scan - HIDA scan is a specialized nuclear medicine scan that measures how well the gallbladder is functioning. It is used to diagnose biliary dyskinesia.
  • High Risk Obstetric Care and Consults - High risk obstetric care and consults is an extra level of care available to women at risk of experiencing problems during or after their pregnancy. A variety of risk factors can make a pregnancy high-risk, including advanced maternal age, chronic health conditions, problems with a previous pregnancy and problems that develop during pregnancy. A high-risk pregnancy means the baby is at a higher risk of having health problems during pregnancy, birth or after delivery. Women having a high-risk pregnancy should be seen more frequently for close monitoring by a maternal-fetal medicine specialist, a physician specially trained to treat high-risk pregnancies.
  • Hirschsprung’s Disease - Hirschsprung’s disease is a condition where a baby’s intestinal nerves do not fully develop, causing him or her to be unable to stool, and as a result, not tolerate feeding. This condition is most commonly seen in the last part of the gastrointestinal tract, known as the rectum and sigmoid colon.
  • Holter Monitoring - Holter monitoring provides 24-hour recordings of cardiac activity to detect and plan treatment of arrhythmia abnormalities.
  • Hydrocele - Hydrocele is fluid around one or both testicles in boys. In many cases hydroceles are normal, but in some cases may indicate an inguinal hernia is present, which should be fixed surgically.
  • Hydrothorax - Hydrothorax occurs when fluid builds up in a baby’s chest. The excess fluid can squeeze the heart, causing a baby to become very sick.
  • Hyperlipidemia - Hyperlipidemia, or high cholesterol, is a condition where abnormally high levels of fats particles, also known as lipids, are found in the blood.
  • Hypertension - Hypertension, or high blood pressure, can be present before pregnancy (chronic hypertension) or develop during pregnancy (gestational hypertension). Pregnant women with hypertension are at risk of developing preeclampsia, experiencing both high blood pressure and protein in the urine, which can lead to serious complications for both the mother and baby.
  • Imperforate anus - Imperforate anus is a birth defect when the anus does not develop and a baby has no place for stool to exit.
  • In Patient Care - Pediatric cardiologists often collaborate with pediatric hospitalists and other pediatric subspecialists in the care and treatment of children who are hospitalized.
  • Incarceration - Incarceration refers to a hernia that has become stuck and does not easily push back into the abdomen.
  • Incision and Drainage - Incision and drainage is the process of opening an area of infection and letting it drain.
  • Incisional Biopsy - Incisional biopsy is the process of cutting out and removing a small portion of abnormal tissue for diagnostic purposes.
  • Infertility Counseling and Treatment - Maternal-fetal medicine (MFM) specialist and OB/GYN health care providers are available to coordinate in the management of women who became pregnant through assisted reproductive technology, including in vitro fertilization (IVF) and intrauterine insemination (IUI). An MFM specialist is able to provide an extra level of care through additional monitoring and screening.
  • Inguinal Hernia - Inguinal hernia is an opening in the abdominal wall near the groin which causes a bulge from the lower abdomen.
  • Inguinal Hernia Repair - Inguinal hernia repair is a type of surgery to fix an inguinal hernia through a small incision in the groin or laparoscopically.
  • Inpatient Consultation and Care - Maternal-fetal medicine specialists are available to provide additional monitoring and comprehensive care to women with high-risk pregnancies who are hospitalized prior to delivery.
  • Interscalene Block - An interscalene block is a nerve block injection around the group of nerves that supplies feeling to the arm and shoulder.
  • Interventional Radiology - Interventional radiology is a subspecialty of radiology focused on the use of diagnostic imaging technology and minimally invasive procedures to diagnose and treat vascular and nonvascular diseases. Many medical conditions, including inoperable cancers, peripheral arterial disease, spinal fractures and uterine fibroids, that once required surgical procedures are now treated non-surgically by an interventional radiologist and result in less risk, reduced pain and shorter recovery times for patients.
  • Intestinal Atresia - Intestinal atresia is an abnormal development of part of the small or large intestine, causing a complete blockage of the intestinal tract and the baby being unable to eat.
  • Intravenous or "IV" Medications - These are pain-relieving medications that are injected into a vein to decrease the sensation of pain during early labor and are prescribed by the patient’s obstetric caregiver. Because the medications are often narcotics, they may make the patient and the baby sleepy.
  • Jaundice - Jaundice is a term used to describe a yellow color in a baby’s skin and in the white parts of the eyes. Jaundice sometimes appears when there is a high level of a substance called bilirubin in the baby’s blood that causes the yellow color.
  • Joint Injections - Joint injections are pain relief injections used to commonly treat arthritis. Pain relief injections typically contain a steroid and a local anesthetic. Patients will remain awake during the pain relief injection procedure, but will be given local anesthetic to numb the skin before the pain relief injection is given.
  • Joint Pain - A joint is the area where two bones meet. Joint pain s the discomfort coming from that area and can occur in any joint. Joint pain can be anywhere from a mild uncomfortable pain to a severe debilitating pain. There are many possible causes for joint pain, including arthritis, cancer, broken bone, dislocation, lupus, Lyme disease, osteoporosis, rickets, or an injury affecting any of the ligaments, bursae or tendons surrounding or within the joint.
  • Karydakis Procedure - Karydakis procedure is the removal of all abnormal pilonidal cysts along the tailbone.
  • Kidney Disease - While women with very mild kidney disease (stages 1-2), who are otherwise healthy, can expect to have a healthy pregnancy, those with moderate to severe kidney disease (stages 3-5) experience a much higher rate of complications.
  • Local Anesthesia - Local anesthesia is when medicine is injected into the tissue to numb just the specific location of the body requiring minor surgery, for example a hand or foot.
  • Local anesthetics - Can provide temporary pain relief to an area, often given in the form of patches or injections.
  • Long QT Syndrome - Long QT syndrome is a disorder of the heart’s electrical activity that is either inherited or caused by a medication or condition. Children with long QT syndrome may experience irregular heart rates, or arrhythmias, when exposed to exercise or stress, sudden fainting, seizures or even sudden death.
  • Low Urinary Tract Obstruction (LUTO) - Low urinary tract obstruction (LUTO) occurs when a baby is unable to pass urine and is most common in boys. When this happens, the baby’s kidneys and lungs can be damaged.
  • Lumbar Plexus Block - The lumbar plexus block is used for surgery involving the hip, including hip replacement surgery.
  • Magnetic Resonance Imaging (MRI) - Magnetic resonance imaging, or MRI, uses strong magnet and radio waves to provide clear and detailed diagnostic images of internal body organs and tissues. MRI allows evaluation of many body structures that may not be as visible with other diagnostic imaging methods, including ligaments, cartilage and nervous system tissues.
  • Management of Advanced Maternal Age - Women who become pregnant after age 35 are more likely to have preexisting health problems and are therefore more at risk of experiencing complications such as high blood pressure and diabetes during pregnancy. There is also an increased risk of birth defects caused by missing, damaged or extra chromosomes. Women who are pregnant at an advanced maternal age should be seen more frequently for close monitoring by a maternal-fetal medicine specialist, a physician specially trained to treat high-risk pregnancies.
  • Management of Complex/Advanced Medical Conditions -

    Women with complex or advanced medical conditions who become pregnant are considered high-risk and may need to be seen more frequently for close monitoring by a maternal-fetal medicine (MFM) specialist, a physician specially trained to treat high-risk pregnancies. Women with a complex medical condition and their baby are both at risk of experiencing serious complications during the pregnancy or after birth. Women with specific conditions may be referred by their OB/GYN to an MFM specialist. Some of these conditions include:

    • Hypertension

    • Heart Disease

    • Morbidly Obese Patients

    • Kidney Disease

  • Management of Multiple Gestations (twins or more) - Pregnant women carrying multiple (twins, triplets, quadruplets, etc.) are at an increased risk of experiencing complications such as preterm delivery, low birth weight and preeclampsia. A maternal-fetal medicine specialist specializes in the care of women experiencing a high-risk pregnancy, such as multiples, and has the additional training and experience required to treat any complications experienced during a pregnancy.
  • Maternal-Fetal Medicine Specialist - Maternal-fetal medicine is a subspecialty of obstetrics and gynecology. Maternal-fetal medicine specialists, sometimes called perinatologists or high-risk obstetricians, are considered “subspecialists”. They earned this designation by undergoing training in a specific area of medicine – obstetrics and gynecology – and taking their education a step further to gain an in-depth understanding of pregnancy complications and treatments. This extra training, which extends three years beyond that required of obstetricians and gynecologists, is focused on the care and treatment of pregnant women with complex medical conditions.
  • Meconium Aspiration Syndrome - Meconium aspiration syndrome occurs when a baby breathes in a waste substance, called meconium, before birth or during delivery, which then causes injury to the lung tissue.
  • Medical Assistant - A medical assistant records vital signs, performs EKG’s, speaks to patients and their families, and helps with various tasks to help diagnose and treat patients.
  • Medication Management -

    There are many different kinds of pain medications that can assist with pain management. The goal of medications is to use them as an interim until interventional treatment can be completed. Some types of medications your pain management physician may use includes:

    • Acetaminophen
    • NSAID Medications (Non-steroidal Anti-Inflammatory Drugs)
    • Corticosteroids
    • Narcotics (or Opioids)
    • Anti-Convulsants
    • Local anesthetics
  • Menopause Management - As a woman matures she will begin producing less estrogen, called perimenopause, and eventually produce none at all, called menopause. This process can start anytime during a woman’s 30’s or 40’s with the average age of menopause being 51. An OB/BYN specialist can offer treatment options to women experiencing uncomfortable symptoms, such as hot flashes or sleep problems, and screen for additional health risks caused by the body’s lack of estrogen.
  • Minimally Invasive Surgery - Minimally invasive surgery is the performance of surgical procedures through multiple small incisions with the assistance of a camera.
  • Morbidly Obese Patients - Obesity during pregnancy puts both the mother and baby at serious risk of developing serious health problems, including gestational diabetes, preeclampsia, birth defects, preterm birth and pregnancy loss.
  • Musculoskeletal Imaging - Musculoskeletal imaging is a subspecialty of radiology focused on bone, joint, muscle and connective tissue abnormalities, including orthopedic, rheumatologic and traumatic conditions. By utilizing powerful imaging modalities, musculoskeletal radiologists are able to assist referring physicians in the diagnosis of conditions and diseases of the musculoskeletal system.
  • Myelomeningocele - Myelomeningocele, or spina bifida, is an abnormal opening in the baby’s spinal cord. The opening can cause damage to the baby’s spinal cord, leading to multiple neurologic problems.
  • Myofascial Syndrome - Myofascial pain, which is one of the most common causes of acute and chronic pain, refers to pain and inflammation in the body’s soft tissues. It may involve either a single muscle or a muscle group. The pain associated with Myofascial pain syndrome centers around sensitive points in muscles called, trigger points. The trigger points in the muscles can be painful when touched and the pain can spread throughout the affected muscle. Myofascial Pain Syndrome has been linked to many types of pain including headaches, jaw pain, neck pain, low back pain, pelvic pain, arm pain and leg pain.
  • Narcotics (or Opioids) - These medications are stronger than the others and are only used when a pain management doctor feels it is the best treatment option. Although these medications can be addicting, if used correctly they can be extremely effective.
  • Neck Pain - Severe neck pain, also referred to as cervical neck pain, is a very common medical condition and can be acute, lasting for a short period of time, or chronic. If cervical neck pain lasts longer than six weeks it can be considered chronic.
  • Necrotizing Enterocolitis (NEC) - Necrotizing enterocolitis is a gastrointestinal disease that mainly affects babies born prematurely and those born with extremely low birth weight (ELBW) (less than 2.2 pounds or 1,000 grams).
  • Neonatal Minimally Invasive Surgery - Neonatal minimally invasive surgery is when surgery is performed through small incisions using specialized instruments designed for babies.
  • Neonatologist - A neonatologist is a specialist within the medical field. They earned this designation by undergoing training in pediatrics and completing three years of additional training to specialize in the care of newborn infants needing intensive care. Many neonatologists participate in follow-up developmental pediatric programs as part of their training.
  • Nerve Blocks -

    A nerve block is a form of regional anesthesia where an anesthesia medication is injected directly next to the nerve to block the transmission of nerve signals. Common regional blocks used by anesthesiologists include:

    • Axillary Block

    • Lumbar Plexus Block

    • Femoral Block

    • Popliteal and Saphenous Blocks

    • Ankle Block

    • Bier Block

    • Interscalene Block

    • Spinal Block

  • Neuropathic Pain - Neuropathic pain, otherwise known as nerve pain, is a complex pain state usually associated with tissue damage. There are many causes of neuropathic pain. Neuropathic pain is often treated with pain relievers, anti-seizure medications, capsaicin cream, lidocaine patch or antidepressants.
  • Neuroradiology - Neuroradiology is a subspecialty of radiology that specializes in performing diagnostic imaging procedures to diagnose and treat diseases and conditions of the central and peripheral nervous system in the brain, spine, head and neck.
  • Neurosurgical Anesthesia or Neurological Anesthesia - Neurosurgical anesthesia, or neuroanesthesia, focuses on patients undergoing brain or spinal cord surgery. This type of surgery is called neurosurgery. There are many similarities between neurosurgical and general anesthesia. Neuroanesthetic management, however, is different because it can have a major effect on the brain and spinal cord through the control of blood flow, blood pressure and energy consumption of these organs.
  • Non Invasive Prenatal Screening - Pregnant women have access to a variety of tests to determine a baby’s risk of Down syndrome, Trisomy 18 and open neural tube defects. Some newer testing methods involve only a blood test and an ultrasound, which can be done safely early in the pregnancy. These screenings are minimally invasive and do not pose any identifiable risk to the fetus. However, while they predict the likelihood that a particular condition is present, they do not provide definitive answers. For example, a “positive result” would not necessarily mean that a baby has a health problem, but it shows that the baby is at increased risk. Similarly, a “negative” result would not guarantee that no health problem is present. Other testing methods can provide a more definitive answer for the specific condition being investigated. However, these tests may pose a greater risk to the mother and fetus because often they are more invasive.
  • NSAID Medications (Non-steroidal Anti-Inflammatory Drugs) - Excellent for treating inflammatory conditions.
  • Nuclear Medicine Scan - Nuclear medicine, or scan, uses a small amount of a radioactive substance to produce two or three-dimensional images of body anatomy and function. The diagnostic images produced by a nuclear scan are used to evaluate a variety of diseases. Sometimes a nuclear scan is combined with a CT scan.
  • Nuss Procedure - Nuss procedure is the placement of a curved bar behind the chest wall to hold it out, fixing pectus excavatum.
  • OB Hospitalist - An OB hospitalist is an obstetrician who has earned an undergraduate degree and completed four years each of medical school and residency training in the medical specialty of obstetrics and gynecology. OB hospitalists specialize in managing the needs of pregnant women who are hospitalized and act as an extension of a patient’s primary care provider.
  • OB/GYN - An OB/GYN, or obstetrician-gynecologist, is a physician who has earned an undergraduate degree and completed four years each of medical school and residency training in the medical specialty of obstetrics and gynecology, specializing in women’s reproductive health and the management of pregnancy.
  • Obstetric Anesthesia -

    Obstetric anesthesia is a subspecialty of anesthesia devoted to the time right before a baby is born, during delivery and post-delivery pain management. Obstetric anesthesia medicine and procedure types include:

    • Intravenous or "IV" Medications
    • Local Anesthesia
    • Regional Blocks
  • Obstetric Ultrasound (Doppler and 3D) - An obstetric ultrasound, often called a sonogram, is a diagnostic procedure that uses high-frequency sound waves to generate images of the fetus. A Doppler ultrasound is able to measure slight changes in sound wave frequency as they bounce off bones and tissue to generate black and white images of the fetus, while a 3-D ultrasound uses specially designed equipment and software to develop three-dimensional images of the fetus.
  • Omphalocele - Omphalocele is an abdominal wall defect where the muscles of the abdominal wall do not completely develop, forming a hernia. Omphaloceles can be small or very large and usually have a sack that protects the abdominal organs.
  • Oncology Imaging - Oncology imaging is a subspecialty of radiology focused on the diagnosis and treatment of cancer. Oncology imaging radiologists assist referring physicians in the early detection and diagnosis of various cancers.
  • Open Fetal Surgery - Open fetal surgery occurs where the mother’s uterus is opened so that surgery can be performed on the baby before he or she is born. When he surgery is done, the uterus is closed with the baby still inside to continue developing.
  • Orchiopexy - Orchiopexy is a type of surgery for undescended testicle(s) where the missing testicle is found and put into the sack.
  • Orthopedic Anesthesia -

    Orthopedic anesthesia is a subspecialty of anesthesia that deals with the bones or skeletal system. Anesthesiologists are trained specifically to handle the complex nature of orthopedic surgery and a variety of techniques to customize care specific to the needs of orthopedic surgery patients. These techniques include, but are not limited to:

    • Special positioning to avoid intraoperative nerve injury
    • Hypotensive anesthesia, the act of inducing arterial hypotension (or an abnormally low blood pressure) to minimize blood loss
    • Isovolemic hemodilution, a mechanism to minimize blood loss
  • Osteoarthritis - Sometimes called degenerative joint disease, is the most common type of arthritis. Osteoarthritis occurs when the cartilage between bones gradually breaks down causing the bones to rub against each other resulting in pain and swelling. It is most common in the knee, hip and facet joints.
  • Out Patient Care - After hospitalization, a child may be referred to a pediatric cardiologist for additional evaluation or continued treatment.
  • P-DEXA - Peripheral dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry, or P-DEXA, machines are portable units that can be used in a doctor's office to measure bone density in the wrist or forearm.
  • Paint and Wait - Paint and wait is a term used to describe the management of large or giant omphaloceles where the abdominal organs are not exposed. Painting the sack with an agent like betadine or silvadene causes a protective scar to form so the baby’s abdomen can be repaired when he or she is bigger and healthier.
  • Patent Ductus Arteriosus (PDA) - Patent ductus arteriosus (PDA) is a problem with a baby’s heart that occurs when a small blood vessel that passes between the two largest blood vessels just outside the heart does not close up after birth.
  • Patient Controlled Analgesia - Epidural analgesia delivers anesthetic medication to nerves within the epidural space in the vertebra. A physician places a small tube or catheter so medication can be administered throughout surgery and beyond for comfort. Frequently the patient can be given control over the dosing mechanism. This technique is called patient-controlled epidural analgesia, or PCEA. This type of pain control is particularly well suited for chest, abdominal or pelvic surgeries, and childbirth.
  • Pectus Excavatum - Pectus excavatum, also known as sunken chest, occurs when the breastbone is sunken in making the chest look concave. A sunken chest can cause problems with breathing that is usually worse during exercise.
  • Pediatric and Neonatal Anesthesia - Pediatric anesthesia is a specialty with expertise, focus and sensitivity to the particular needs of children and their parents. The reason that a child needs anesthesia for procedures, like MRIs or endoscopies, is because it ensures that they will remain very still and calm. This enables the technician to obtain all the results and photos they need for the physician to diagnose and treat the child. Furthermore, the anesthesia ensures that the child will feel no pain or discomfort during the procedure.
  • Pediatric Anesthesiologist - An anesthesiologist is a physician who has earned an undergraduate degree and completed four years each of medical school and residency training in the medical specialty of anesthesiology. A pediatric anesthesiologist has additional experience or fellowship training in pediatric anesthesiology and may be board certified in both anesthesiology and pediatric anesthesiology. Additionally, many pediatric anesthesiologists also specialize in cardiac anesthesiology, pain medicine, critical care management or neuroanesthesia.
  • Pediatric Cardiac Anesthesia - Pediatric cardiac anesthesia is a subspecialty of anesthesia specific to heart disease in children. Anesthesiologists who subspecialize in pediatric cardiac anesthesia have the training to understand the effects of anesthesia on a child with heart disease, and are experts in the management of children with congenital heart abnormalities.
  • Pediatric Cardiologist - A pediatric cardiologist is a pediatrician who has completed an additional three or more years of training in pediatric cardiology. This training gives a pediatric cardiologist the skills needed to diagnose, treat and manage heart conditions in fetuses, newborns, children and teens.
  • Pediatric Hospitalist - Pediatric hospitalists are hospital-based pediatricians who provide specialized inpatient care and treatment to children who require hospitalization due to an illness or injury. Pediatric hospitalists have completed a residency with emphasis on inpatient management of newborns, infants, children and adolescents.
  • Pediatric Intensivist - A pediatric intensivist, also called a pediatric critical care physician, is a specialist within the medical field. They earned this designation by undergoing training in pediatrics and completing three years of additional training in pediatric critical care medicine. A pediatric intensivist is usually the lead PICU physician and will direct the medical care of PICU patients. Advanced practitioners and physician assistants often work in collaboration with pediatric intensivists.
  • Pediatric Neurologist - A pediatric neurologist is a pediatrician who has completed an additional three or more years of training in the area of neurology. This training gives a pediatric neurologist the skills needed to evaluate and care for children of all ages with conditions involving the brain and nervous system. A board certified pediatric neurologist has successfully passed an additional evaluation by the American Board of Psychiatry and Neurology and has special competences in child neurology.
  • Pediatric Ophthalmologist - A pediatric ophthalmologist is a physician who completed four years of medical school, one year of medical internship, three years of ophthalmology residency and one additional year of specialized fellowship training in pediatric ophthalmology. This training gives pediatric ophthalmologists the skills needed to evaluate children of all ages and provide appropriate treatment for pediatric eye problems. A board certified, fellowship trained pediatric ophthalmologist has successfully passed the American Board of Ophthalmology examination and has special competencies in pediatric ophthalmology.
  • Pediatric Otolaryngologist - A pediatric otolaryngologist, or ear, nose and throat (ENT) doctor, is a physician who completed an additional five-year otolaryngology residency program and one to two years of additional pediatric training. This training gives pediatric otolaryngologists the skills needed to evaluate and care for children of all ages with conditions involving the ear, nose or throat. A board certified pediatric otolaryngologist has successfully passed an additional evaluation by the American Board of Otolaryngology and has special competences in pediatric otolaryngology. Advanced practice providers and audiologists often work in collaboration with pediatric otolaryngologists. Other specialists, including pulmonologists, allergists, developmental pediatricians, infectious disease specialists, gastroenterologists, speech therapists and/or lactation consultants, may either refer a child to a practice, or serve as a consultant regarding his or her unique situation.
  • Pediatric Surgeon - A pediatric surgeon is a physician who has earned an undergraduate degree and completed four years of medical school, five years of residency training in general surgery followed by an additional two years of residency specialization in pediatric surgery. Pediatric surgeons are double board certified in surgery and pediatric surgery.
  • Pediatrician - A pediatrician is a doctor who completed three or more years of specialty training in pediatrics. Some pediatricians have additional expertise in the treatment of children with developmental challenges and consider developmental pediatrics an area of interest.
  • Percutaneous Fetal Surgery - Percutaneous fetal surgery is a type of surgery where small needles are passed through a mother’s stomach, into the uterus, to perform procedures on a developing baby. This procedure is often used to remove fluid from the baby or to place shunts.
  • Persistent Pulmonary Hypertension of the Newborn (PPHN) - Persistent pulmonary hypertension of the newborn (PPHN) is a problem in which the blood pressure in a baby’s lungs is too high.
  • Physical examination - A physical examination can help physicians with diagnosing problems or conditions and determine additional testing needs.
  • PICC Line - The PICC line is a thin tube that is inserted into a vein in order to give medicine and fluids directly into the infant’s bloodstream. It is used if a baby needs to be given medicine, blood or fluids many times over several days, weeks or months.
  • Pilonidal Cyst - Pilonidal cyst is a chronically draining area on the tailbone. When hair gets stuck in the cyst, it results in an infection that causes pain over the tailbone. The infection usually has to be treated by incision and drainage. Pilonidal cysts usually become a chronic problem and require surgery for cure.
  • Popliteal and Saphenous Blocks - The popliteal and saphenous nerve blocks are used for surgery involving the foot and ankle.
  • Positron Emission Tomography - Positron emission tomography, also called a PET scan, is a nuclear medicine exam that produces a three-dimensional image of functional processes in the body. A PET scan uses a small amount of a radioactive drug to show differences between healthy and diseased tissue. The diagnostic images produced by PET are used to evaluate a variety of diseases.
  • Post-Surgical Pain -

    Many techniques are available that can help patients achieve high levels of comfort and safety following surgery, including interventional methods as well as pain medications. Pain control after surgery contributes to the healing process. If pain is not adequately controlled following surgery, patients may not be able to perform the functions necessary to heal satisfactorily. Functions like taking deep breaths, getting out of bed and walking can be difficult after surgery and sometimes require interventional pain management methods. If pain is allowed to persist the resulting inactivity can lead to severe problems such as pneumonia or an embolism.

  • Posterior Sagittal Anorectoplasty - Posterior sagittal anorectoplasty, also known as the Pena procedure, is performed to repair imperforate anus and create an anus for the baby.
  • Pre-Conception Counseling - Pre-conception counseling is an evaluation of a woman’s current health and medical history to help identify opportunities to better prepare the body for becoming pregnant. The evaluation may include a review of the patient’s current lifestyle and medical history, including current medications, screening and treatment for any infectious diseases, immunization updates, education and recommendations on behavior modifications to reduce risk factors.
  • Prematurity - Prematurity is a term used to describe infants born before the 37th week of pregnancy. Infants born prematurely may experience motor, language, cognitive or other developmental delays, sensory losses such as hearing or visual impairment or feeding difficulties.
  • Preventative Cardiology - Preventive cardiology care is the comprehensive evaluation of a child’s family history, current medical condition, and activity level to make dietary, exercise and medical recommendations.
  • Primary Closure - Primary closure is a procedure where a surgeon uses stitches to close a hernia or repair gastroschisis or small omphaloceles.
  • Pulmonary Lung Lobectomy - Pulmonary lung lobectomy is a procedure where a portion of the lung is removed.
  • Radiofrequency - Radiofrequency lesioning of nerves is a safe procedure that may be used to reduce chronic pain by preventing transmission of pain signals. The radiofrequency current heats up a small section of nerve tissue to cause a long-lasting interruption in pain signals and reduce pain in that area. This procedure is sometimes called radiofrequency ablation. It is a non-surgical option for long lasting pain relief.
  • Radiologist - A radiologist is a physician who has earned an undergraduate degree and completed four years each of medical school and residency training in the medical specialty of diagnostic radiology. Many radiologists have additional fellowship training in radiology subspecialties. Board certified radiologists have additional certification in their subspecialty and are certified by the American Board of Radiology.
  • Ravitch Procedure - Ravitch procedure is where the cartilaginous portions of the ribs are excised to allow the breast bone to be repositioned, used to treat chest wall problems like pectus excavatum.
  • Rectal Biopsy - Rectal biopsy is a procedure where a biopsy of the rectum is taken, usually to see if nerve cells are present, to diagnose Hirschsprung’s disease.
  • Rectal Irrigation - Rectal irrigations is a type of enema used to wash the rectum and colon and prevent enterocolitis.
  • Regional Anesthesia - In regional anesthesia an injection is made near a cluster of nerves to numb the area of the body that requires surgery. The patient may remain awake, or may be given a sedative to help relax.
  • Regional Blocks - Regional blocks for labor are better known as an "epidural," "spinal," or combination of the two. In short, an epidural involves placement of a catheter (a very small tube) in the back. An epidural can remove most or all of the pain of labor and delivery. A spinal is similar but involves a single injection of anesthetic medicine without the catheter.
  • Registered Nurse - A registered nurse is a nurse who has completed a nursing program and has satisfied local licensing requirements.
  • Respiratory Distress Syndrome (RDS) - Respiratory distress syndrome (RDS) is a problem in which a baby, usually a premature infant, has trouble breathing. RDS happens when the baby’s lungs do not produce enough of a series of soap-like chemicals called surfactant to make the lungs less stiff so they can work well.
  • Retinopathy of Prematurity (ROP) - Retinopathy of prematurity (ROP) is a problem with a baby’s eyes. The retina is a thin layer of tissue that covers the back portion of the eyeball. In babies born early, blood vessels still need to grow in the retina. In some babies, these vessels grow too fast and in a corkscrew shape. This process can cause bleeding and scarring. Scarring sometimes pulls the retina off the back of the eye. This can cause loss of sight or decreased vision.
  • Rheumatoid arthritis - Is long lasting and can affect joints in any part of the body, but most commonly the hands, wrists and knees. Rheumatoid arthritis attacks the lining of the joints, causing swelling that can result in aching and throbbing.
  • Robotic-Assisted Surgery - Robotic-assisted surgery is when a surgeon uses robotic arms to perform surgical procedures.
  • Routine Obstetric Care and Consults - Routine obstetric care is recommended for pregnant women experiencing a normal pregnancy without any risk factors. The first appointment may include a complete physical exam, including a pap smear, routine prenatal lab work and an ultrasound to confirm the pregnancy is viable and calculate a due date. Additional appointments are scheduled throughout the pregnancy, increasing in frequency as the due date approaches. During an obstetric appointment, an OB/GYN health care provider will perform routine screenings and tests to identify potential risk factors and recommend additional testing or preventative measures as needed. These visits also serve as an opportunity for patients to discuss any questions or concerns related to the pregnancy or upcoming labor and delivery experience.
  • Sciatica - The sciatic nerve is the largest nerve in the body, starting in the low back extending through the buttocks and down the leg to the ankle and foot. Sciatic nerve pain refers to the pain that radiates from the back down the buttocks and leg. Sciatica treatments depend on the underlying cause.
  • Sedation Anesthesia - With sedation anesthesia the patient is deeply relaxed. He or she may be sleeping, but is able to be awakened easily and can respond to questions or physical stimulation.
  • Shingles - Shingles (Herpes Zosters) is a viral infection of the nerve roots. It causes pain and a rash that spreads on one side of the body.
  • Sonographer / Ultrasound Technician - A sonographer or ultrasound technician is a health care professional, certified by the American Registry for Medical Sonography, with advanced training in the use of ultrasound devices to obtain images, scans or videos for diagnostic purposes.
  • Speech Delay - Speech delay, or alalia, refers to a developmental delay in a child’s ability to make sounds through use of the lungs, vocal cords, mouth, tongue and teeth; for example, articulation or pronunciation. This term is often used to describe a language delay, which refers to a delay in expressive or receptive communication ability.
  • Spinal Block - This is a nerve block injection into the lower back where the spinal nerves are located. It will block the feeling and movement of the lower half of the body.
  • Spinal Cord Stimulators - A spinal cord stimulator is an implanted electronic device used to help treat chronic pain. It consists of an electric lead (or wire) placed beside the spinal cord. The wire is connected to a generator that produces a computer-controlled electrical signal. These low voltage electrical signals prevent messages of pain from reaching the brain.
  • Sports Clearance - A sports clearance evaluation is an in-depth assessment of a child’s heart to determine if he or she is at risk of sudden cardiac death. The evaluation includes a review of the child’s medical history and risk factors, as well as an EKG, echocardiogram and/or additional types of testing.
  • Sports Injuries -

    Sports injuries happen to athletes participating in sporting events and are very common occurrences. Often they are caused by overuse of a body part or hard contact with something. The most common sports injuries include:

    • Sprains and strains
    • Knee injuries
    • Torn muscles
    • Achilles tendon injuries
    • Pain along the shin bone
    • Fractures
    • Dislocations
    • Joint pain
  • Strangulation - Strangulation refers to an incarcerated hernia where the blood flow to the herniated contents is cut-off.
  • Syncope - The most common cause of fainting, benign syncope, is when the body reacts to certain activities (such as standing up), by increasing the heart rate and/or blood pressure. The body then responds to this increase by decreasing the heart rate and/or blood pressure, sometimes causing a child to faint, or feel like they are going to faint.
  • Testicular Torsion - Testicular torsion is a twisting of the testicle that results in blood flow to the testicle being cut-off.
  • Transplant Anesthesia - Transplant anesthesia is the specialty of anesthesia that manages surgeries involving organ transplants. Anesthesiologists that specialize in organ transplant anesthesia understand and have the expertise to manage both the organ recipient and the organ donor.
  • Trauma Anesthesia - Trauma anesthesia is the subspecialty of anesthesia focused on trauma patients and their comprehensive acute requirements. All types of anesthesia, including general, regional, sedation and local, may be used when treating a trauma patient.
  • Trigger Point Injections - Trigger point injections for pain are used to treat painful areas of muscle that contain trigger points, or knots that form when muscles do not relax. The knot can often be felt under the skin and may twitch involuntarily when touched. The trigger point can trap or irritate surrounding nerves and cause referred pain, or pain that is felt in another part of the body.
  • Twin-to-Twin-Transfusion Syndrome - Twin-to-twin transfusion syndrome occurs when twins share a single placenta and blood is passed from one twin to the other. In severe cases, one twin receives too much blood while the other twin doesn’t receive enough. If left untreated, there is a high likelihood that neither twin will survive.
  • Ultrasound - Ultrasound imaging, also called sonography, is a method of obtaining diagnostic images from inside the body to help doctors with making diagnoses and treatment recommendations. Ultrasound is painless and does not use radiation, but rather uses sound waves that are reflected from various body tissues.
  • Umbilical Catheter - A catheter is a thin tube that is placed in the body in order to draw out blood to be used for testing or to allow fluids and medicines to be given. This device serves as a passage that allows doctors and nurses to perform these functions as needed. An umbilical catheter is inserted into the umbilical cord in one of two ways; either into a vein (called an umbilical venous catheter or UVC) or into an artery (called an umbilical arterial catheter or UAC).
  • Umbilical hernia - Umbilical hernia is an opening in the belly button which causes a bulge. Most umbilical hernias go away on their own by the time a child is 3 to 4 years of age. If the hernia persists after this age, surgery is recommended to fix it and prevent problems later in life.
  • Umbilical Hernia Repair - Umbilical hernia repair is the closing of an umbilical, or belly button, hernia through a small incision in the belly button. This procedure is typically done with sutures alone, but in severe cases may require a mesh patch.
  • Undescended Testicle - Undescended testicle occurs when one or both of the testicles are not present in the sack. The testicle(s) can be stuck in the groin or inside the abdomen.
  • Walking Epidural - The walking epidural provides pain relief for early labor and for periods following surgical procedures. Medications delivered through a catheter are quite effective but do not numb or weaken the legs or lower abdomen. This epidural is an analgesic rather than an anesthetic because its purpose is to reduce pain, not eliminate all sensation.
  • Water-Soluble Contrast Enema - Water-soluble contrast enema is a diagnostic procedure that involves putting contrast up a baby’s bottom and using x-rays to produce a picture of the colon and the last part of the small bowel.
  • Women’s Health Nurse Practitioner - A women’s health nurse practitioner is a registered nurse with a master’s degree who has received advanced training in women’s health and reproductive and gynecological care.
  • Women’s Imaging - Women's imaging is a subspecialty of radiology focused on women's health, with an emphasis on the diagnosis and staging of breast cancer. This specialty also includes the evaluation of women with reproductive tract issues and the evaluation of women with suspected or proven bone loss. By utilizing powerful imaging modalities, women's imaging radiologists are able to assist primary care providers and specialists in the detection, diagnosis and management of these conditions.
  • X-ray - X-ray is the oldest and most frequently used form of medical imaging, producing diagnostic images of the body that allow doctors to view and assess broken bones or other injuries.

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