Bladder stones are quite rare, especially in children. The development of stone(s) in the bladder is always related to incomplete emptying of the bladder (stasis of urine). They are extremely rare in neurologically normal children. They are most commonly seen in children with neurogenic bladder, which means abnormal bladder function due to a neurological problem. The most common cause of neurogenic bladder in children is spina bifida and associated similar congenital anomalies.
Bladder stones will almost always require surgery for removal. Today, this is almost always possible with a minimally invasive technique, usually with a small scope passed through the urethra or via a small incision just above the bladder through which a scope is passed. The stones can then be removed with the scope and/or fragmented with a laser. It is rare to require an “open” procedure for the removal of bladder stones today.