Ureteral duplication, also known as a duplex collecting system, refers to the presence of two ureters draining a single kidney. Each ureter may independently drain into the bladder, or they may connect on the way down and drain as a single ureter into the bladder. This can occur on one or both sides and is considered a normal variant. No treatment is required if ureteral duplication is the only finding. Some children with ureteral duplications can have a ureterocele, vesicoureteral reflux or one may insert into an abnormal location (ectopic ureter). In these cases, certain investigations, medical treatments or even surgery may be needed.